Working with the Web: Glossary

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# or symbol

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


# or Symbol

&
HTML code to display an ampersand & on a web page
>
HTML code to display the greater-than sign > on a web page
<
HTML code to display the less-than sign < on a web page
&nbsp;
HTML code to display a non-breaking space, which won't wrap to a new line.
&quot;
HTML code to display  quotes " on a web page
<!--   -->
HTML code for an internal comment. Text in the middle will not be shown on the web page in a browser. Used for explanations about the code, statements about copyright and usage, etc.
<!doctype ...>
HTML code that tells what HTML version the code is in. Useful for programs that check HTML code. Does not display on the we page
<a>
HTML code for an anchor tag, which creates a hyperlink. Must include the HREF attribute which gives the destination of the link.
Example: <a href="http://www.myisp.com/~myname/mypage.htm"> My page</a> will display as My page. When the link is clicked, the browser loads the page specified in the HREF path.
<b>
HTML code makes text bold.
<body>
Required HTML tag that contains the contents of the HTML page. 
<br>
HTML code for a line break. Use the attribute CLEAR to stop text wrapping around images. 
Example: <br clear=all> 
<dd>
HTML code that marks off the definition in a definitions list. Preceded by a DT tag and contained inside a DL tag.
<dl>
HTML code that marks a definitions list, composed of terms and definitions. Contains DT (term) and DD (definition) tags. 
<dt>
HTML code that marks the term being defined in a definitions list. A DD tag follows immediately. Contained in a DL tag.
<em>
 HTML code for emphasis. Most browsers will show EM text in italics.
<font>
HTML code that controls appearance of text using the attributes  FACE, SIZE, COLOR. 
Example: <font face="Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, serif" color="#FF0000" size="4">My Job</font> will display as My Job
<h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>
HTML code for headings. Top level is h1. Generally, size of text and boldness vary, with H1 being largest.
<head>
HTML code that contains instructions about the page, but none of the content shown on the page. The HEAD comes after the HTML tag and before the BODY tag.
<hr>
HTML code for a horizontal line across the page
<html>
Required beginning tag for an HTML document.
<i>
HTML code to make text italic.
<img>
HTML tag for an image. Must contain at least the SRC attribute to give the path to the image file. Other image attributes include BORDER, WIDTH, HEIGHT, HSPACE, VSPACE, ALIGN, ALT.
Example: <img border="0" src="../icon-floppy.gif" width="20" height="20" hspace="10" vspace="10" align="middle">  displays the image Floppy diskwith extra space around it and aligned vertically to the middle of the text line.
<li>
HTML code for an item in a list, either an ordered or an unordered list.
<ol>
HTML code for an ordered list, which will number the items in the list. choices for numbering are Arabic numbers like 1, 2, 3, or Roman numbers like I, II, III... or i, ii, iii,... or letters like A, B, C... or a, b, c.
<p>
HTML code for a paragraph. Paragraphs have extra white space below compared to wrapped text.
<strong>
HTML code for another form of emphasis. Most browsers display as bold.
<table>
HTML code for a table. Must contain at least one row <tr> </tr> and one cell <td> </td>.
<td> 
HTML for a table cell
<tr>
HTML code for a table row
<title>
HTML code that sets a title for the page, which is displayed in the Title bar of the browser window by most browsers.
<u>
HTML code that underlines characters
<ul>
HTML code for an unordered list, which will place a bullet in front of each item in the list. Bullets may be a circle, disc, or square.
 

A

address
the unique URL that tells where something is on the Internet
Address Bar
browser bar which shows the address of the page displayed.
align
image - attribute of the IMG tag. Common values are top, middle, bottom, and texttop.
 
paragraph or table- attribute of the P or TABLE tag. Value can be left, right, center, or justify.
anchor
An object on an HTML page has its position calculated with respect to the location of its anchor. You can select the anchor to move the object.
anchor tag
The HTML tag <a>  </a> is used to create a hyperlink with the attribute HREF or to name a spot with the ID attribute.
animated gif
a GIF format images which contains several images. These are shown in sequence, creating the illusion of motion.
asp
Active Server Page. A file type for web pages.
attribute
An HTML tag may have one or more attributes which can have various values. For example the IMG tag has the required attribute of SRC but also can have WIDTH, HEIGHT, and ALT attributes.

 

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B

Back
a browser button that returns the view to the last page shown. A drop list attached to the button lists the last several pages visited.
background image
an image that forms the background of a web page. It may be repeated across and vertically or it may be a single image.
block element
document tags which define a section of an HTML document, usually starting a new line. Includes all headings, paragraphs, lists, tables.
BMP
bitmap format for images. Specifies the color of each pixel in the picture.
bookmark
a way to save the location of a web page you would like to return to later. IE calls these Favorites and saves them as shortcuts. Other browsers save the location as a link in a special HTML document.
browser
a program which displays HTML documents.
browser safe colors
The 216 colors which don't dither on either Windows or Mac computers.
bullet
A symbol that precedes an item in a bulleted list. Standard HTML shapes are circle, disc, and square.
 

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C

cable modem
a device that connects your computer to the Internet using the cable TV line
cell
the intersection of a row and a column in a table
Channel
a button on the Toolbar which opens a list of channels, special web pages that automatically update information to your desktop
chat
a software program that allows people to type messages to each other in real time.
closing tag
Most HTML tags require a closing tag with a slash / to stop the action of the tag. 
Example: <p> starts a paragraph and </p> ends the paragraph.
compress
to make a file smaller by changing the way the information is stored
connection
a way to connect your computer to the Internet. Home users usually have a dial-up account with an ISP (Internet Service Provider). Word users often have a direct connection to a T1 or T3 line.
copyright
the legal right to control the use of intellectual property - something written or created, like a book or other text document, a drawing or other artistic creation, a song.
CSS
Cascading StyleSheets - a way to create consistent styles for use on a page or across a site

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D

database
a program to manage lists that are not entirely numbers, such as addresses, phone lists, inventories... A database is made up of files which contain records which are made up of fields.
debug
look for and remove errors in a program
default
the original settings; what will happen if you don't change anything
deprecated
An HTML tag which is not in the most current HTML standard. The tag has become obsolete.
DHTML
Dynamic HTML - a combination of HTML and JavaScript or other scripting to create 
dither
When a color cannot be shown directly, you can dither the color to fool the eye into seeing that color by using dots of other colors. The human eye blends the dots into a single color, when the dots are small.
doctype
Code that tells the browser what HTML standard to use to interpret the code correctly.
domain
the unique name for a computer connected to the Internet. The name is a number in the form nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn, but most domains also have an alias, like www.microsoft.com or www.jegsworks.com
download
transfer a file to your computer from elsewhere

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E

Edit
a button on the IE toolbar that opens the source code of the current page in Notepad or another HTML editor; make changes in a document
email
electronic mail - sending messages over a network or internet connection

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F

Favorites 
a list of shortcuts to web pages kept by Internet Explorer
form
a set of input fields for the viewer to fill out. Clicking the Submit button sends the results by email or records the results in a database.
Forward 
a button on the IE Toolbar that opens the next page on the list of pages you have recently seen. It only works if you backed up in the list.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. A protocol for moving files between computers.
full path
lists the route to a file starting with the drive name and naming all the folders/directories, like c:\documents\memos\123197.doc

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G

gif
Extension for files in Graphics Image Format. Good for drawings and clipart. Compresses the file's size
graphics conversion program
Software that can change the file format of an image.
graphics program
Software for creating and editing images

H

handle
a small square at a corner or edge of an image. Dragging this square will resize the image
History
the list of web pages that you have visited recently; the button that opens the History list in a pane on the left of IE.
Home
the button on the IE Toolbar that returns you to the page that the browser opens by default
horizontal rule
A line across an HTML page, created with the tag <hr>
href
Hypertext reference - the attribute of the A tag that sets the destination of the link.
HTML
HyperText Markup Language; what the source code for web pages is written in
HTML editor
software which is especially good for editing HTML pages.
http
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol; the protocol used to transmit web pages
hyperlink
part of a web page that has a URL attached so that clicking it opens another document. Also called a link.
hypertext
text which has a URL attached

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I

image
a picture, drawing, map, or photo.
index.html
the file name that the browser looks for if the path ends with a directory, as in http://www.jegsworks.com instead of http://www.jegsworks.com/examples/webresources.htm .
inline element
tag for HTML document which is not a block element. Includes logical and character formatting tags.
interlaced gif
a GIF format image which displays in stages. Rather than displaying all lines in sequence from top to bottom, at first selected lines from the whole image are displayed and then the others are filled in.
Internet
a network of connected computer systems which reaches around the world 
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
a company that provides a way for you to connect your computer to the Internet
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
software that allows you to type conversations with other people in real time
ISDN terminal adapter
Integrated Services Digital Network. A digital device which connects a computer to a digital communications line. Often called a modem, even though it works in a completely different way.

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J

JavaScript
A scripting language often used to make web pages interactive.
jpg
File extension for Joint Photo Expert Group file format. Good for photos. Compresses file size but information is lost with each compression.

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K

keyword
a word that is used in a search box to look for related documents; a word hidden in the source code of an HTML page for search services to use

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L

link
short for hyperlink.
list: bulleted
Each item in the list is preceded by a symbol, called a bullet. Also called an unordered list. In HTML the standard shapes are a circle, a disc, and a square. A list inside a list will have a different bullet. Starts with <ul> and ends with </ul>. Each list  item starts with <li>. The ending tag </li> is not required for HTML 4.0.
list: definitions
A list of terms alternating with their definitions. In HTML the definition is normally indented from the term and on another line. Starts with <dl> and ends with </dl>. Each term is coded with <dt> and each definition with <dd>. Their end tags are optional.
list: numbered
Each item in the list is preceded by a number. Also called an ordered list. In HTML there are several choices for the kind of number: 1,2,3... or I, II, III..., or i, ii, iii...  or A, B, C... or a, b, c... If a list item has a sublist, the numbering will change. Starts with <ol> and ends with </ol>.

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M

Mail
a button on the IE Toolbar which will open your email program.
Menubar
a cascading bar of commands in IE
metasearch
a search service that sends your keywords to several search services at the same time. Results are usually shown together, with a note about what service provided the item.
modem
A device that allows a computer to communicate over a telephone or data line with another computer.
monospaced font
a set of characters which all have the same width. So a w is takes just as much space on the line as an i. Typewriters use monospaced fonts like this.

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N

navigate
to move from one web to another, or to move between parts of the page, or between frames.
network
a set of computers which are linked together on a permanent basis
newsgroup
a discussion group on the Internet where messages and responses are posted for all to read  

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O

online service
a company which provides a connection to the Internet plus content, like America OnLine
opening tag
HTML code that marks the start of your instruction. The form is <nnn> where nnn stands for the actual tag.  Examples: <p> starts a paragraph, <ol> starts an ordered list. Most HTML tags require and closing tag also.
ordered list
See list: numbered

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P

path
1. a list of locations where the computer will look for commands if the full path is not given. Example: C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;D:\PERL\BIN;
 
2. the hierarchy of drive and folders that is the location of a file. Example: "c:\My Documents\complit101\web\Start\index.html" tells you that the file index.html is on Drive C in folder My Documents in its subfolder complit101 in its subfolder web in its subfolder Start. This is the full path to the file.
pixel
a single dot on a computer screen
png
The extension of the graphics file format Portable Network Graphic. This format compresses the file with a different algorithm than with GIF format.
portal
a web site which intends for you to use it at your Home page and so provides links to features you might want to see regularly, like weather, news, sports scores, stock market quotes.
progressive jpg
a JPEG format image which displays gradually, getting more detail and sharper with each rendering.
proportional font
a set of characters which have varying widths. For example a w is wider than an i. 
protocol
the rules for how a communication is conducted between electronic devices

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Q

Quick Launch
a section of the Windows Taskbar which comes with Internet Explorer 4 and 5. It contains shortcuts to programs that you use regularly.

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R

refresh
to make the browser redraw the page.
relative path
Tells how to get to a file from the current location. 
Example: the relative path "../../html/images.htm" tells you that the file images.htm is up two folder levels in the folder html.
Example: the relative path "example/australia/beaches.htm" tells you that the file beaches.htm is in a subfolder of the folder that the current page is in.
robot
see spider.
row
the set of cells that runs across the width of a table

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S

script
small subprogram
search
look for specific word(s) or character(s) in a document or on the Internet 
search engine
software that finds documents across the Internet, indexes the text, and can be searched itself to provide lists of documents that match keywords
shortcut
a clickable link to a web page or other document
source code
the HTML code that defines an HTML document
spider
an automatic software program that crawls through the Internet for a search engine.
standards
the recommendations of the W3C for coding web pages and other technical matters
Status Bar
the bottom of a browser window that has a message about what the browser is doing. 
Stop
a button on the Internet Explorer Toolbar that makes the browser stop trying to load a web page. Very useful when the connection is slow and the page is taking a long time.
style
a way to label document parts like normal paragraphs, headings, and lists. This word is inherited from word processing. 
1.  one of the standard HTML paragraph styles, like H1, H2, and bulleted list
2.  an author-defined style using Cascading StyleSheets
SVG
Scalable Vector Graphics - a new format for web graphics that uses equations to describe the shapes.
subscribe
to download a page for viewing offline and to be notified of changes in the page.

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T

table
a way to display information in orderly rows and columns.
tag
HTML code that labels the start and send of the logical parts of the document, such as a heading or paragraph, or of the effect you are  applying, such as italics or bold.
text editor
Software with which you can edit the HTML code directly. An HTML text editor will have additional features to help you code correctly.
text graphic
an image of text, usually in an unusual font that might not be on the viewer's computer. Often used for navigation buttons and logos.
texture
1.  A background image that creates an overall effect on a web page, like water, sand, or marble.
2.  Any small background image that is repeated across the page.
thumbnail
A small image representing a much larger one.
tile
Repeating an image across the background of a web page and then dropping down a row to repeat again until the whole page is covered.
 
toolbar
a portion of the window devoted to special tasks or commands. Usually has buttons to click on to execute commands
transparent gif
a GIF format image which has one color set as "transparent" so that the background shows instead of the color.

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U

unordered list
See list: bulleted
URL
Universal Resource Locator - also known as the address of an item

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V

value
One of several choices for an HTML tag attribute.
Example: the paragraph tag can have the attribute ALIGN which can have the value "left", "right", "center', or "justify" as in <p align="justify">
vector
a way to describe an image with equations. Such an image can be resized without getting fuzzy or jagged. 
virus
a computer program that performs tasks without your permission or consent. May be harmless but annoying or may be highly damaging.  

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W

watermark
A page background that remains in place as the page is scrolled. Often used for company logos.
Web
see WWW
web directory
a search service that arranges the web pages it knows about into categories and subcategories. Often picked by human beings for inclusion in the categories.
web page
an HTML document, viewable with a browser
web server
a computer that manages the delivery of web pages over the Internet
web space
disk space on a web server for storing web pages
white space
The blank area around your text and images and in between lines of text.
W3C
World Wide Web ConsortiumLink leads to another site - a group that defines standards for web technology.
WYSISYG editor
A web page editor that displays the web page as you create it and lets you edit what you see directly.
WWW (World Wide Web)
that part of the Internet that contains HTML pages

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X

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Y

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Z

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Lessons Working with the Web




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Copyright 1997-2012 Jan Smith   <jegs1@jegsworks.com>
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~~  1 Cor. 10:31 ...whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God.  ~~


Last updated: 30 Apr 2012